Forgotten History of the Great War WWI (1914 – 1918)
WWI was the first time chemical warfare was used.
The Great War was also the first time wireless transmissions were introduced.
What are the implications?
It was not until after the Titanic catastrophe in 1912 that radio for mass communication came into vogue, inspired first by the work of amateur (“ham”) radio operators. Radio was especially important during World War I as it was vital for air and naval operations.
Prelude to War
In 1900, construction began on a large radio transmitting alternator. Fessenden, experimenting with a high-frequency spark transmitter, successfully transmitted speech on December 23, 1900, over a distance of about 1.6 kilometres (0.99 mi), the first audio radio transmission. Wide commercial use of wireless transmission was the AM band that began a decade later in 1910. However, widespread AM broadcasting was not established until the 1920s, following the development of vacuum tube receivers and transmitters. AM radio remained the dominant method of broadcasting for the next 30 years, a period called the “Golden Age of Radio“, until television broadcasting became widespread in the 1950s and received most of the programming previously carried by radio.
On December 23 1913 Woodrow Wilson enacted the Federal Reserve Act surrendering control of the issue of money from the treasury and into the hands of a private central bank – the FED.
The tipping point came on June 28, 1914, with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary by a Serbian national. This single act set off a chain of events that quickly plunged the world into a global war that eventually claimed between 9 and 10 million lives and lasted 4 years.
By March 1917, public support for Nicholas had collapsed and he was forced to abdicate the throne, thereby ending the Romanov dynasty’s 304-year rule of Russia (1613–1917).
The October Revolution 1917 (Bolshevik Revolution) was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917–1923.
This period saw Russia abolish its monarchy and adopt a socialist form of government following two successive revolutions and a bloody civil war. The Russian Revolution can also be seen as the precursor for the other European revolutions that occurred during or in the aftermath of WWI, such as the German Revolution of 1918.
In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution. The Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favor of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. The Paris Peace Conference was the formal meeting in 1919 and 1920 of the victorious Allies after the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers. Dominated by the leaders of Britain, France, the United States and Italy, it resulted in five treaties that rearranged the maps of Europe and parts of Asia, Africa and the Pacific Islands, and also imposed financial penalties. Germany and the other losing nations had no voice in the Conference’s deliberations; this gave rise to political resentments that lasted for decades.The League of Nations was founded on 10 January 1920 by the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Chemical Warfare and Medical Response During World War I
IN THE LATE AFTERNOON OF April 22, 1915, members of a special unit of the German Army opened the valves on more than 6000 steel cylinders arrayed in trenches along their defensive perimeter at Ypres, Belgium. Within 10 minutes, 160 tons of chlorine gas drifted over the opposing French trenches, engulfing all those downwind. Filled with pressurized liquid chlorine, the cylinders had been clandestinely installed by the Germans more than 3 weeks earlier. The order to release the gas was entrusted to German military meteorologists, who had carefully studied the area’s prevailing wind patterns. Disregarding intelligence reports about the strange cylinders prior to the attack, the French troops were totally unprepared for this new and horrifying weapon.
The surprise use of chlorine gas allowed the Germans to rupture the French line along a 6-kilometer (3.7-mile) front, causing terror and forcing a panicked and chaotic retreat. Within a matter of minutes, this slow moving wall of gas killed more than 1000 French and Algerian soldiers, while wounding approximately 4000 more. A British soldier described the pandemonium that flowed from the front lines to the rear.
“[I watched] figures running wildly in confusion over the fields. Greenish-gray clouds swept down upon them, turning yellow as they traveled over the country blasting everything they touched and shriveling up the vegetation. . . . Then there staggered into our midst French soldiers, blinded, coughing, chests heaving, faces an ugly purple color, lips speechless with agony, and behind them in the gas soaked trenches, we learned that they had left hundreds of dead and dying comrades.”
The German High Command sanctioned the use of gas in the hope that this new weapon would bring a decisive victory, breaking the enduring stalemate of trench warfare. However, their faith in this wonder weapon was limited. Surprised by the apparent success of the attack, and having no plan to send a large offensive force in after the gas, the Germans were unable to take advantage of the situation. Within days, both armies once again faced each other from the same opposing fortifications. The attack that spring day, nonetheless, marked a turning point in military history, as it is recognized as the first successful use of lethal chemical weapons on the battlefield. The first WMD.
The Trenches of Hell
Spanish Flu breaks out 1918 – 1920 First recorded in March 1918 in Kansas, US. Just as the war ends and troops return home. In terms of knowledge of influenza as an infectious diseases, not a great deal was understood at the time. Many medical professionals thought that influenza was a specific communicable disease that presented seasonally, usually in the winter. Even so, without specific diagnostic tools, mild cases of influenza were difficult to distinguish from other acute respiratory illnesses.
In 2008 Anthony Fauci Found Bacterial Pneumonia Caused Most Deaths in 1918 Influenza Pandemic
German scientist Richard Pfeiffer (1858-1945) claimed to have identified the causative agent of influenza in a publication in 1892 — he described rod-shaped bacilli present in every case of influenza he examined. He was not, however, able to demonstrate Koch’s postulates by causing the illness in experimental animals. Many professionals accepted his findings, though, and thought Pfeiffer’s influenza bacillus, as it was called, was responsible for seasonal influenza.
But as the 1910s progressed and bacteriological methods matured, other researchers presented results that conflicted with Pfeiffer’s findings. They found his organism in healthy individuals and in those suffering from illnesses that clearly were not influenza. Additionally, they looked for Pfeiffer’s bacillus in influenza cases and in many instances did not find it at all. Though many physicians still believed that Pfeiffer had correctly identified the culprit, a growing number of others had begun to doubt his findings.
Those true believers had some reason to be hopeful that a vaccine could prevent influenza as the disease began its second appearance in the United States in early fall 1918. By October 2, 1918, William H. Park, MD, head bacteriologist of the New York City Health Department, was working on a Pfeiffer’s bacteria influenza vaccine. The New York Times reported that Royal S. Copeland, Health Commissioner of New York City, described the vaccine as an influenza preventive and an “application of an old idea to a new disease.” Park was making his vaccine from heat-killed Pfeiffer’s bacilli isolated from ill individuals and testing it on volunteers from Health Department staff. Three doses were given 48 hours apart. By October 12, he wrote in the New York Medical Journal that he was vaccinating employees from large companies and soldiers in army camps. He hoped to have evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of the vaccine in a few weeks (Park WH, 1918).
What was never considered at the end of the war was the newly introduced toxins being developed, manufactured and weaponized for the battlefield on a large scale for the first time in history and it’s effects on the environment and to those exposed. The scientific basis for the acceptance of influenza rests on four major influenza epidemics that were recorded between 1830 and 1848 and again in 1889-90. All sweeping from the north through southern Europe. Both instances coincide with early industrialization, development and large scale manufacturing practices of chemicals by companies like BASF situated in the Rhine Neckar Area.of Germany.
Although one could argue that primitive forms of chemical weapons were used in earlier conflicts, it was not until the 20th century that scientists, engineers, and physicians could predictably and consistently produce these weapons to inflict mass casualties. At the close of the 19th century, the various European powers became troubled by the potentiality of chemical weapons and began holding conferences and writing various treaties to limit or curtail the development and deployment of this new technology. Suspicion and self-interest among both allies and rivals generally limited the usefulness of these activities, an unfortunate political reality that continues to the present day. For instance, the Hague Declaration of 1899 and the Hague Convention of 1907 forbade the use of “poison or poisonous weapons” in warfare, yet more than 124 000 tons of gas were produced by the end of World War I
The Roaring 20’s followed and “A Return to Normalcy” was a United States presidential candidate campaign slogan. It was initially used in Warren G. Harding’s campaign for the election of 1920, to evoke a return to the way of life before World War I, the First Red Scare, and the Spanish flu pandemic. In France, the decade was known as the années folles (“crazy years”)
The First Red Scare was a period during the early 20th-century history of the United States marked by a widespread fear of far-left extremism, including but not limited to Bolshevism and anarchism, due to real and imagined events; real events included the Russian 1917 October Revolution and anarchist bombings. At its height in 1919–1920, concerns over the effects of radical political agitation in American society and the alleged spread of communism and anarchism in the American labor movement fueled a general sense of concern.This presented the intelligence community a window of opportunity to test it’s various EMF and psychological experiments to influence with propaganda or by nudging large populations to accept authoritarian encroachments that would otherwise be unthinkable to accept in times of peace.
The Scare had its origins in the hyper-nationalism of World War I as well as the Russian Revolution. At the war’s end, following the October Revolution, American authorities saw the threat of communist revolution in the actions of organized labor, including such disparate cases as the Seattle General Strike and the Boston Police Strike and then in the bombing campaign directed by anarchist groups at political and business leaders. Fueled by labor unrest and the anarchist bombings, and then spurred on by the Palmer Raids and attempts by United States Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer to suppress radical organizations, it was characterized by exaggerated rhetoric, illegal search and seizures, unwarranted arrests and detentions, and the deportation of several hundred suspected radicals and anarchists. In addition, the growing anti-immigration nativist movement among Americans viewed increasing immigration from Southern Europe and Eastern Europe as a threat to American political and social stability.
The widespread fear of far-left extremism fomented by political change in Russia with the abolition of the monarchy and the noblities loss of power in Germany created the conditions for a Red Scare which was politically promoted and used as a propaganda tool of events to subvert uprisings in America by denouncing the movements as dangerous to democracy and radical. Fear of radicalism was used to explain the suppression of freedom of expression in the form of display of certain flags and banners. In April 1920, concerns peaked with J. Edgar Hoover telling the nation to prepare for a bloody uprising on May Day. Police and militias prepared for the worst, but May Day passed without incident. Soon, public opinion and the courts turned against Palmer, putting an end to his raids and the First Red Scare. This doctrine of fear appeal, censoring of radio, print and news, the propaganda continues today and is what led to the prohibition in 1920.
1920 – 1933 Prohibition in US on alcohol (1933 German government of Von Schleicher falls)
Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany Jan 30, 1933
Wall Street Crash October 29, 1929 (Black Tuesday) – Great Depression begins 1929 – 1939
Two years later in 1927, IG Farben partnered with Standard Oil (one of the largest oil refiners in the world, founded by John D. Rockefeller) to exchange patents and dominate economies on both sides of the Atlantic.
Standard Oil sent IG Farben their patents regarding the coal hydrogenation process and IG Farben reciprocated by offering up their own patents on the process of manufacturing synthetic rubber.
BASF and AGFA also produced the first tape used for surveillance by the intelligence community.
BASF is an acronym for Badische Anilin- und SodaFabrik (German for ”Baden Aniline and Soda Factory”). It was founded by Friedrich Engelhorn on 6 April 1865 in Mannheim, in the German-speaking state of Baden. BASF originally developed and produced dyes used to make intense colouring agents that had led to the commercial production of synthetic dyes in England from aniline extracted from coal tar. Engelhorn had been responsible for setting up a gasworks and street lighting for the town council in 1861. The gasworks produced tar as a by-product, and Engelhorn used this for the production of dyes. BASF developed Polystyrene in the 1930s and invented an expandable polystyrene (EPS) Styropor in 1951.
BASF SE is a German multinational chemical company and the largest chemical producer in the world. The BASF Group comprises subsidiaries and joint ventures in more than 80 countries and operates six integrated production sites and 390 other production sites in Europe, Asia, Australia, the Americas and Africa.
BASF (leader of the chemical industry of the IG Farben parent) built a chemical factory in Auschwitz by the name IG Auschwitz. The chemical factory IG Auschwitz has a width of 3 km and a length of 8 km, resulting in a size of 24 km². It was the largest chemical factory of the world. IG Farben also achieved notoriety owing to its production of Zyklon-B, the lethal gas used to murder prisoners in German Nazi extermination camps during the Holocaust.
Research began as the first US troops made preparations for combat. Fear of gas attacks against these members of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) embarking for the European front initially focused research in the United States on defensive measures, with priority given to gas mask design and production.
As the American war effort intensified, research expanded to include offensive weapons, resulting in numerous discoveries, including the creation of one of the conflict’s only new chemical weapons, an arsenic-based agent similar to mustard gas called lewisite (β-chlorovinyldichloroarsine). Synthesized in his laboratory by Wilfred Lee Lewis, this deadly substance was soon mass-produced by the military under the direction of chemist and future Harvard president James. B. Conant. By July 1918, research and development on agents such as lewisite passed from civilian to military control as the entire chemical weapons program moved from the Bureau of Mines to the army’s newly organized Chemical Warfare Service.
In 1883, Emil Rathenau founded Deutsche Edison-Gesellschaft für angewandte Elektricität in Berlin. In 1888 it was renamed Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft. Initially producing electrical equipment (such as light bulbs, motors and generators), the company soon became involved in AC electric transmission systems. In 1907, Peter Behrens was appointed as artistic consultant to AEG. This led to the creation of the company’s initial corporate identity, with products and advertising sharing common design features.
The company expanded in the first half of the 20th century, and it is credited with a number of firsts and inventions in electrical engineering. During the same period, it entered the automobile and airplane markets. Electrical equipment for railways was produced during this time, beginning a long history of supplying the German railways with electrical equipment. According to the 1930 Encyclopedia Britannica: “Prior to 1923 it was the largest electrical manufacturing concern in Germany and one of the most important industrial undertakings in the world.
For perspective, in 1879 Electric lights (Brush arc lamps) were first used for public street lighting, as the advent of electricity exploded first in America and Europe then around the world. Also of note in 1851 the first “Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations” proposed by Queen Victoria’s husband, Prince Albert. began with Henry Cole, Francis Henry, George Wallis, and Charles Dilke. held in The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London, the United Kingdom. The Great Exhibition, as it is usually called, was considered to be the first international exhibition of manufactured products. However, the first World Fair was held in Prague Bohemia (modern-day Czech Republic) in 1791. The first industrial exhibition was on the occasion of the coronation of Leopold II as a king of Bohemia, which took place in Clementinum, and celebrated the considerable sophistication of manufacturing methods in the Czech lands during that time period.
The official version of World Fairs can be summarized as follows:
People of the nineteenth century loved greco roman architecture for reasons unknown, so it was extremely important to the architects to organize the worlds fairs between about 1850 to 1914 to build an a-classical style. With World War I classical styled ambitions in Europe ended abruptly, and many exhibitions also did not take place as planned. It was only in the wake of fascism that there was a return to ancient design principles but these were often implemented superficially and were applied to a few representative magnificent buildings. After the Second World War on the other hand, classical architecture was deliberately replaced with new trends.eg: Bauhaus and brutalism. Officially the intention was to create an aesthetic distance to fascism but in all likelihood was to cut the connection to the old world through brutalistic soulless architecture and provide an excuse to tear down and destroy any remnants of the past.
THE MYSTERY OF THE WORLD’S FAIRS STOLEN HISTORY
Agfa-Gevaert N.V. (Agfa) is a Belgian-German multinational corporation that develops, manufactures, and distributes analogue and digital imaging products, software, and systems. It has three divisions:
- Agfa Graphics, which offers integrated prepress and industrial inkjet systems to the printing and graphics industries.
- Agfa HealthCare, which supplies hospitals and other care organisations with imaging products and systems, and information systems.
- Agfa Specialty Products, which supplies products to various industrial markets. It is part of the Agfa Materials organization. In addition to the Agfa Specialty Products activities, Agfa Materials supplies film and related products to Agfa Graphics and Agfa HealthCare.
1945 When the Allies broke up IG Farben to reduce the size of the German chemical industry, Agfa reappeared as an individual business. An Agfa plant located in what was to become East Germany became the foundation of ORWO and out of reach of the west..
In 1952 the re-establishment of Agfa AG as a wholly owned subsidiary of Bayer in Leverkusen brought the conglomerate together once again to dominate the market.
At the end of the war, the Nuremberg War Criminal Tribunal convicted 24 IG Farben executives for crimes against humanity including mass murder and slavery. However, most of them were released within 2-6 years and immediately began consulting for American agritech companies if they weren’t recruited through Project Paperclip first.
In 1948, IG Farben bigwig and Nazi party member, Fritz ter Meer, was convicted of “mass murder and enslavement” and sentenced to 7 years in prison. After his early release in 1950, he became chairman of the board of directors for Bayer, a position he held until 1964. What is today called the “Bayer Science & Education Foundation”, an initiative that awards scholarships to chemistry students, was originally set up to honour ter Meer.
After merging with Monsanto in a $62 billion dollar deal, Bayer became the largest agrichemical company in the world (The takeover was financed by European taxpayers without them even knowing about it).
Bernays techniques of propaganda and persuasion led to invention during the depression.
Events leading to world war, the market crash of 1929 and the great depression of the 1930’s were largely influenced by The intelligence community colluding with I.G. Farben, AEG and BASF to develop magnetic recording tape ushering in an unprecedented level of surveillance where everything could be captured, recorded and reproduced.
The invisible techniques of manipulation have one very interesting characteristic in common; Transparency.
Transparent tape first appeared on the market in September of 1930
Scotch was one of the few companies that worked through the depression uninterrupted.
The invention of masking tape came about to solve one problem Today it has endless uses.
Popular at the time despite the depression for millions were two tone cars and one of the first successful psychological campaigns using advertzing techniques Bernays had developed earlier. His best-known campaigns include a 1929 effort to promote female smoking by branding cigarettes as feminist “Torches of Freedom”
In the early booming car industry years with the Ford Motor Company introducing the assembly line for mass production in 1908, Painters were challenged by the transition of using two colors. How were they to make a clean line from one color to another without damage? 3M’s solution was masking tapes inception. The tape was conceived by Dick Drew an engineer hired by 3M as a lab assistant in 1923. In 1925: Drew invents Scotch® Masking Tape, the predecessor to transparent tape. This marks 3M’s entry into the tape business.
“Would there have been any masking or cellophane tape if it hadn’t been for earlier 3M research on adhesive binders for (waterproof) abrasive paper?” He once asked rhetorically. “Probably not.”
The iconic snail-shaped tape dispenser came out in 1939—John Borden, 3M sales manager basic design has remained a standard.
3M” comes from “Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing,” but those three M’s might better stand for Mistake = Magic = Money. Throughout its 122-year history, many of 3M’s breakthrough products have followed a similar arc.
The story behind the brand name for both of Drew’s tapes–Scotch–is unclear, but the common (and probably apocryphal) tale is that one of Drew’s early masking-tape prototypes didn’t have enough adhesive and kept coming unstuck from the car, leading the painter who was using it to say, “Take this tape back to those Scotch bosses of yours and have them put more adhesive on it!” That reference to the notion, common then, that Scots were stingy, ironically served 3M well during the Depression, when Scotch cellophane tape became a symbol of thrift and do-it-yourself mending.
1940 – 3M Products Go to War consumer products halt.
In 1945: After World War II, 3M resumes shipments of tapes for civilian use offering 100 different products and in 1946 3M makes it’s debut on the NYSE.
In 1953, Soviet scientists showed that triboluminescence caused by peeling a roll of an unidentified Scotch brand tape in a vacuum can produce X-rays. In 2008, American scientists performed an experiment that showed the rays can be strong enough to leave an X-ray image of a finger on photographic paper.
The Discovery and Use of Magnetic Tape
Electricity refined the way sounds were captured in time — adding a new dimension of fidelity to the acoustic phonograph. The invention of magnetic recording tape represented a quantum leap forward in audio technology. For the first time, thanks to tape, sound could be manipulated. What had been the representation of a singular moment in time became a malleable moment in space. It was the change of the sound. The intelligence communities now had a new method to exploit that developed into Project Monarch a precursor to MK-ULTRA that history largely attributes to the work conducted by Josef Mengele and other Nazi experimentation during WWII that used the war to test the threshold of human resilience and endurance to biological toxins, psychological and deprivation traumas.
Valdemar Poulsen and his partner Peder O. Pedersen discovered the application of a direct current to the recording head, called dc bias, and improved the sound quality on a steel tape version of the Telegraphone. At the 1900 Paris fair, Poulsen recorded the voice of Emperor Franz Joseph, today preserved in the Danish Museum of Science and Technology as the oldest magnetic sound recording.
The German engineer Fritz Pfleumer discovered a different method of magnetic recording. AEG signed a contract with Pfleumer 1932 Nov. 28, to develop a recorder. Theo Volk led the AEG team that worked with Pfleumer and with another team led by chemist Friedrich Matthias of BASF, a subsidiary of the I. G. Farben chemical giant. AEG had expertise in producing high-frequency coils filled with carbonyl iron powder supplied by BASF, and I.G. Farben also produced films and plastics and a variety of coated materials.
Hermann Bucher, chairman of A.E.G. was on the I.G. Farben board; and took special interest in the potential magnetic recording offered resulting in thousands of Textophone dictation machines sold to Hitler’s government by C. Lorenz AG…
The partnership created by Bucher and Pfleumer because both were music lovers, would become one of the greatest corporate research and development triumphs of the century. Over the next three years, the teams perfected a tape and recorder that became the standard design for the industry for the next 30 years.
Eduard Schuller patented in 1933 the ring-shaped magnetic head that was one of the team’s most important inventions. Previous heads were shaped like phonograph needles or chisel and damaged the soft tape. Schuller’s ring focused a strong magnetic field on a small area of tape without damaging the surface. Matthias developed a two-layer magnetic tape, bonding a top layer of carbonyl iron powder with a base layer of cellulose acetate, similar to the kind of layered safety film made by AGFA for photography. Measuring and testing devices were invented to evaluate the performance of the recorders built by AEG. A tape drive system of capstans and motors and brakes had to be created, and everything had to work with the electronics of amplifiers and speakers. Finally, the Magnetophone K1 debuted at the Berlin Radio Fair in August 1935.
The BBC needed a recorder for its shortwave radio Empire Service that could broadcast the same program at different times throughout the British Empire and helped develop and improve the dc motor of the Blattnerphone with a synchronous ac motor and reduced the steel tape width to 3 mm., The Marconi Wireless Company also improved the Blattnerphone for sale to radio stations in Canada, Australia, France, Poland, and Egypt. Bell Labs developed a steel tape telephone recorder but Bell did not market the machine outside the company. Semi Begun developed the Soundmirror steel tape recorder in early 1939 at the Brush Development Company in Cleveland, Ohio, that would be used by the military.
August 25, 1939 The Wizard of OZ premiered in Technicolor for the first time. According to the U.S. Library of Congress, it is the most seen film in movie history. It was among the top ten in the 2005 BFI (British Film Institute) list of “50 films to be seen by the age of 14”, and is on the BFI’s updated list of “50 films to be seen by the age of 15” released in May 2020 Technicolor was the second major color process, after Britain’s Kinemacolor (used between 1908 and 1914), and the most widely used color process in Hollywood during the Golden Age of Hollywood. Technicolor’s three-color process became known and celebrated for its highly saturated color. The rainbow is a reference to Dorothy entering the colorful dream world in Wizard of Oz. The film is an occult work of mind control programming based on the book by L. Frank Baum (see Secrets of Fairy Tales).
MK-ULTRA (1953 – 1973) (Continues under various names to present day)
MAGNETIC RECORDING FOR MOTION PICTURES
The motion picture industry was quick to adopt the tape recorder for its ability to edit sounds during production, and for the improved quality of sound during exhibition. “This is Cinerama” premiered 1952 Sept. 30, at the Broadway Theater in New York and would play for 122 weeks. This 3-projector system designed by Fred Waller used a wide curved screen and a separate 7-track magnetic soundtrack designed by Hazard E. Reeves for specially equipped theaters. The Robe premiered 1953 Sept. 16, at the Roxy in New York in Cinemascope by Twentieth Century Fox with 4-track magnetic soundtrack on the edge of each 35 mm cellulose tri-acetate filmstrip. Oklahoma! premiered 1955 Oct. 10, at the Rivoli Theater in New York in 65 mm Todd-A with a separate 6-track magnetic soundtrack system designed by Westrex and Ampex. Michael Todd joined with Joe Schenck of Fox and George Skouras of United Artists Theatre Circuit to form the Magna Theatre Corporation for production and distribution of Todd-AO films.
The evolution of magnetic tape has been responsible for many other innovative applications. In 1965, the Philips company introduced the compact cassette for consumer audio recording and playback on small portable machines such as the Norelco Carry-Corder 150. Philips intended the cassette to be used for business dictation, and had no idea that it would appeal more to consumers who wanted a simple method to record music. Sony capitalized later by introducing a hand held compact cassette player that became the walkman and the beginning of electronic gadgets.
The cassette format became the basis of the videotape revolution in the 1970’s. Sony introduced the 3/4-inch U-matic VCR in the U.S. in 1971, and for the first time, allowed other manufacturers to sell machines that could play the cassette, and thus succeeded in establishing a world standard for the 3/4-inch videocassette.
The transformation of the credit card created a multibillion-dollar industry. IBM had perfected in the 1960s a method of adhering a magnetic stripe to the surface of a plastic credit card. This stripe could have multiple tracks and allow read and write operations from special machines capable of decoding binary data. American Airlines and American Express first used striped cards for ticketing at O’Hare Airport in Chicago. The first of three tracks on early credit cards was used by the airline industry. The second track contained identifying information such as account numbers and names. The third track was read-write and could hold the balance of an account. The American Banking Association approved use of the magnetic stripe in 1971 but most banks resisted its use. In 1972, Dee W. Hock, president of National BankAmericard Inc. (NBI, later to be called Visa), adopted the magnetic stripe for its new Uni-Card division in competition with the cards of the nation’s largest banks, including Bank of America and Citibank. Eventually, the banks followed his lead and made the magnetic stripe common on all credit cards.
The Digital revolution of the 1980s continued the use of the cassette and disk and magnetic tape. In 1986 Sony/Philips introduced Digital Audio Tape, or DAT, as a result of efforts of the 81-member firm R-DAT consortium to develop a recordable version of the optical compact disc. Because of copyright problems, electronics firms delayed development of consumer products and DAT remained a high-priced professional medium. In 1991 the Alesis Corporation of Los Angeles introduced its new ADAT machine that recorded 8 tracks of digital audio to a standard S-VHS videocassette using the same helical scan technology that created the videocassette boom in the 1970s. With a list price of $3995 , and cassettes at $15, the ADAT made multitrack digital recording affordable for the small studio, with the ability to connect together up to 16 ADATs for a total of 128 synchronized tracks. 20,000 were sold in its first year from 1992 October to 1993 November and 80,000 sold by 1998. The Electronic Musician declared in 1992 Oct. that “ADAT is more than a technological innovation; it’s a social force.” In 1992 Sony began sales of the MiniDisc that had been announced 1991 May 30. The MD was a recordable magneto-optical disc encased in a plastic cartridge with the same 74-minute capacity as the CD but at half the size and with greater compression. The MD was intended to replace the CD and the compact cassette. Sales of cassette tapes began to decline in 1989, and Sony felt that the compact cassette system was nearing the end. In 1993 the Tascam division of Teac introduced in February the DA-88 digital 8-track recorder for $4,499, the first modular digital multitrack (MDM) recorder to use the Hi-8 videotape. In 1997 sales began of the Digital Video cassettes following the DV and miniDV standard introduced by Panasonic & Sony. In 1999 Panasonic announced Digital-VHS (DVHS), the first VCR capable of recording all 18 Digital TV format including HDTV. Just as computers continued to use magnetic hard disks to store data, audio recording continued to use magnetic tape and cassettes for the new era of digital sound.
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